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When characters or enemies attack their targets, they deal damage based on their and their target's attributes (indicated in yellow on a player's or enemy's HP bar). The damage is calculated the same way for all abilities (including combat talents, weapon passive abilities, and enemy attacks) and factors in the following components:

Outgoing Damage

The base outgoing damage is the damage dealt before accounting for CRIT or the target's defense/resistances. The formula for base outgoing damage of an ability is:


  • is the subject's total ATK value (including ATK and % ATK Bonuses), given by , where
    • is the base attack of the subject, given by
    • is the sum of all percentage attack bonuses the subject has. This includes effects such as Pyro Resonance.
    • is the sum of all flat attack bonuses (excluding base attack) the subject has.
  • is the ability's damage percentage. (For player characters, this is listed in the Talents screen or in a weapon's effects for combat talents and weapon abilities, respectively.)
  • is the sum of all damage bonuses applicable to the attack.
    • These bonuses will always be referred to in-game using the "DMG" keyword (e.g., Elemental/Physical/Burst/Skill/Normal Attack/Charged Attack/Plunging/All DMG%, increased DMG against enemies affected by Electro/Pyro/Hydro/Cryo).
    • Notably, ATK and ATK% bonuses are NOT DMG bonuses.
  • is the sum of all damage increases based on fixed percentage of Character's Attributes (e.g., Zhongli's Dominance of Earth and Kokomi's Nereid's Ascension).
  • There are some skills that are multiplicative, including Yoimiya's Niwabi Fire-Dance and Xingqiu's Evilsoother, giving an extra multiplier to those above.

Although some skills rely on attributes other than attack (e.g. defense and health) to deal damage, the rule of calculations should still follow.

If the damage is a Critical Hit, the CRIT DMG multiplier is also applied:

The CRIT Rate represents the probability of the Critical Hit occurring. The average damage including Critical Hits is then:

This is derived in the Critical Hit page.

Incoming Damage

To calculate the incoming damage that a character or enemy will take from an ability:

Where the defense and resistance multipliers are as defined in the sections below.

Note that the incoming damage will receive an additional multiplier if the damage source triggers an amplifying reaction; see the amplifying reaction damage section below for more details.


Characters have defense attributes based on their base stats, levels, weapons, artifacts, and any buffs (e.g. Food).

Enemy defense is given as:

Defense is calculated as:

For both characters and enemies, defense reduces incoming damage based on this formula:

The incoming damage will then be multiplied by


Resistance Multiplier vs. RES%

Characters and enemies can have different resistances to Elemental and Physical DMG. There are further ways to increase or decrease these resistances. RES is the actual resistance attribute. Its formula is:

The Resistance multiplier varies nonlinearly with the RES percentage. Depending on the value of in the interval below, the corresponding is as follows:[1]

Formula Interval

RES < 0

0 ≤ RES < 0.75

RES ≥ 0.75

For example, an enemy with 10% RES (0.1) will have a RES multiplier.

For a table of enemy resistances, see Resistance#Base Enemy Resistances.

Damage Reduction

Some abilities provide Damage Reduction in the form of an additional multiplier to the incoming damage:

These are multiplied with the DEF and RES multipliers.

Elemental Reaction Damage

Elemental Reactions may be categorized into two groups:

  • Transformative Reactions that deal additional elemental damage when triggered; and
  • Amplifying Reactions that increase the damage of the hit that triggered the reaction.

Note that triggering multiple reactions in quick succession can cause the reaction's pop-up text to be hidden by the game, even though the reaction occurred and dealt damage successfully.

Transformative Reaction Damage

The transformative reactions are Overloaded, Shattered, Electro-Charged, Superconduct, and Swirl.

The damage dealt by such reactions scales with the triggering character's level and Elemental Mastery ("EM"), and is reduced by the target's elemental resistances. Unlike normal combat damage, this damage is not based on the attack stat, cannot deal critical damage, and is not reduced by the target's defense.

Additionally, the stats and passive abilities of the character that applies the initial element do not affect the reaction damage; the only character that matters is the one that applies the second element which triggers the reaction.

Each reaction has the same level and EM scaling, but deal different amounts of damage because they have different multipliers ("Reaction Multiplier").[2][3]

Certain effects such as the 4-piece set bonuses of the Crimson Witch of Flames and Thundering Fury Artifact sets can also increase the reaction damage ("% Reaction Bonus").

The outgoing damage before defense and resistances is as follows:

The level of EM can also increase the damage of transformative reactions by a certain percentage ("% EM Bonus"). (See Elemental Mastery for more details.) This can be approximated as follows:

Base Damage from Transformative Reactions per Level

EM and % EM Bonus exhibit diminishing returns. At very low EM (close to 0), a 100 EM increase provides an approximate 75% increase in % EM Bonus. However, at very high EM (close to 1000), a 100 EM increase only provides an approximate 35% increase in % EM Bonus.

It is possible for transformative reactions that apply an element in an AoE to further trigger amplifying reactions. Currently, Swirl is the only element that can do so. For example, when Anemo is applied to a target affected by Pyro, a Pyro Swirl is triggered and this can hit nearby targets that are affected by Hydro. In this case, the amplifying reaction adds an additional multiplier ("Amplifying Multiplier") to the outgoing damage dealt to the target affected by Hydro, as calculated in the next section.

Transformative reactions ignore the target's defense, but are still affected by their resistances. The incoming damage taken by the target is as follows:

For the base damages of transformative reactions per Level, see Level Scaling/Reaction.

Amplifying Reaction Damage

The amplifying reactions are Vaporize and Melt. Amplifying reactions add extra multipliers to the incoming damage of the attack that triggered the reaction based on the triggering element and the elemental mastery of the triggering character.

Certain effects such as the 4-piece set bonus of the Crimson Witch of Flames Artifact set can further increase the damage ("Reaction Bonus").

The additional amplifying multiplier is as follows:

This amplifying multiplier increases incoming damage:

where "Incoming DMG" may be the damage dealt from a combat talent, or a transformative reaction as calculated in the earlier section.

The level of EM can also increase the damage of amplifying reactions by a certain percentage ("% EM Bonus"). (See Elemental Mastery for more details.) This can be approximated as follows:

Note that a combat talent can trigger a critical hit and an amplifying reaction on the same hit; with all the damage multipliers involved, this will often result in very large amounts of damage.

On the other hand, talents that only apply the elemental status will deal no damage upon triggering an amplifying reaction.

Swirl-Induced Reaction Damage

Since Swirl depends on the triggering element, Transformative and Amplifying Reactions are possible on enemy units with compatible elements. Damage calculation is modified by utilizing both the formulas of Transformative and Amplifying Reactions.

For Amplifying Reactions:

For Transformative Reactions the same damage calculations in the previous sections is applied.

Reaction Modifiers

Reactions can be affected by various abilities:

Ability Icon Amount Reaction Notes
Mona: Constellation 1 Prophecy of Submersion Prophecy of Submersion +15% Hydro Reactions (Electro-Charged, Hydro-Swirl, Vaporize, and Frozen) Instead of damage, Frozen duration is increased.
Crimson Witch of Flames: 4-piece bonus +40% Burning and Overload
Crimson Witch of Flames: 4-piece bonus +15% Melt and Vaporize
Retracing Bolide: 4-piece bonus
Item Retracing Bolide.png4-5★ Set Retracing Bolide
+35% Crystallize Shield Strength affects Crystallize.
Thundering Fury: 4-piece bonus
Item Thundering Fury.png4-5★ Set Thundering Fury
+40% Electro Reactions (Electro-Charged, Overloaded, and Superconduct)
Viridescent Venerer: 4-piece bonus +60% Swirl

True Damage

True Damage[Note 1] deals damage as a fixed percentage of HP or a fixed number while ignoring most buffs and debuffs applied to and from characters.

Two kinds of True Damage exist: environmental damage, and damage caused by status effects.

Environmental Damage

Environmental damage comes primarily from environmental sources.

  • Fall Damage is incurred from falling from a high place. Assuming acceleration due to gravity is the same as on earth, a fall from ~10m would cause a human character or enemy to lose about half of their HP. A fall from even a slightly higher place would likely trigger death.
    • When a character drowns or falls off the world, all characters in the party will lose 10% Max HP.
  • Fire in the open world deals 2 DMG/s - 100 DMG/s, depending on elemental RES.
  • Energized water as well as water with spikes deals exponentially more DMG based on the duration of time spent in the water.
  • Some environmental hazards such as Mist Flowers and Electro Crystals deal damage much like regular enemies do: they have a hidden level (based on the enemy level of the area) and attack (based on level) and deal damage that gets reduced by defense and resistances.
  • Transformative elemental reactions triggered by the environment deal damage that scales with the World Level; the actual damage is scaled to 2 world levels below the current one and is limited to 0 at minimum and 4 at maximum. (So, world levels 0 through 2 have the minimum environmental reaction damage, and world levels 6 and above have the maximum environmental reaction damage.)
    • Note that this only applies when the environment triggers the reaction; examples include burning damage from burning grass, Electro-Charged damage from water, and Overloaded damage from walking on burning grass while affected by Electro.

Status Effect Damage

Damage dealt by status effects is generally fixed.

  • Climate - damage dealt by certain climate conditions is fixed at 1% max HP + 150 HP per second, regardless of the climate effect.
  • Auras - damage dealt by auras depends on the aura and the domain level/world level. The damage dealt by the six main damaging auras ignores DEF but does not ignore elemental RES or shields.
  • Ley Line Disorders - damage dealt by or amplified by Ley Line Disorders depends on the specific disorder. Sheer Cold and Blazing Heat gauges deal fixed damage once they max out. Smoldering Flames deals fixed Pyro DMG over time until the element is removed. True damage as an explicit Ley Line Disorder deals fixed damage that does not depend on any buffs.


Snapshotting refers to the ability of certain DoT attacks to retain their buffs from the time they are cast. An example is how Xiangling's Pyronado will be buffed for its whole duration when cast inside Bennett's Fantastic Voyage field, even if one walks outside the field or the field expires.

Attack Speed

The attribute Attack Speed (ATK SPD) increases Damage per Second (DPS) and so acts as an indirect and separate multiplier to damage. Generally attack speed boosts only affect Normal and Charged Attacks.

Sample Calculation

Consider the following sequence:

  1. Mona Mona has the following Attributes: Level is 70, Attack is 1500, Elemental Mastery is 150, Crit Damage is 80% and Hydro DMG Bonus is 40%.
  2. Mona Mona applies Wet on a Level 75 Fatui Agent.
  3. Sucrose Sucrose with 4 piece Viridescent Venerer Swirls the enemy.
  4. The Wet status wears off of the enemy.
  5. Klee Klee with Constellation Explosive Frags.png Constellation 2 - Explosive Frags deals Pyro DMG, applying Pyro to the enemy.
  6. Mona Mona casts Talent Stellaris Phantasm.png Level 6 Stellaris Phantasm, triggering Vaporize for no damage and clearing the Pyro status.
  7. Klee Klee deals Pyro DMG to the enemy, triggering Illusory Bubble, which deals Critical Hydro DMG and Vaporizes.

We can calculate the damage dealt by Mona in the final step as follows:

Talent Stellaris Phantasm.png Stellaris Phantasm will deal 52247 Hydro DMG.


  1. Term introduced in Version 2.3

Change History

Released in Version 1.0
Version 1.6

Elemental Mastery bonus damage (%) vs Elemental Mastery (EM)
Version 1.6 buffed values shown in red; Version 1.5 in blue

  • Shields generated by Crystallize, elemental reaction damage (Electro-Charged, Superconduct, Overloaded, Swirl, and Shatter), and the damage bonus for the same elemental reactions were buffed.
  • The Elemental Mastery bonus was increased (relatively) by +75% at low levels increasing to +90% at high levels.[4]
  • The exact changes are not yet certain:
    • According to one analysis base Elemental Reaction damage was reduced (by ~30%) below level 60, but above level 60 slightly increased, gaining up to ~ +15% by level 80, and +20% by level 90. Before and after buff base damage was roughly equal at level 60.[4]
    • An alternative analysis gave no change below level 60 for base damage, but an increasing boost after - peaking at +20% at level 90.[5]
    • The new formula for Elemental Mastery bonus has been estimated as 16EM/(EM+2000). This gives an increase in bonus of 170% to 200% increasing with EM value.[5]
  • The net effect of these changes is minimal changes in damage at lower levels, but substantial increases in damage above level 60 - generally roughly up to doubled damage. (At level 90 between 1.4x and 2.2x damage, depending on EM.[5])
  • The damage absorption of crystallize generated shields has also been significantly increased.
    • According to one analysis the increase in base shield absorption strength was steadily increased from around level 30, reaching around +30% over the shield strength in v1.5.[5]
  • Elemental mastery bonus formula for transformative reactions was changed from the following:

Version 1.4

Version 1.3

  • All Geo shield damage absorption (Noelle, Zhongli, Crystallize) was altered from 250% Geo damage absorption to 150% mixed physical and elemental. Benefits from Geo Elemental Resonance and shields were also increase (+15% shield strength, +15% damage when shielded, reduced Geo resistance of attacked foes by 20% for 15seconds).[11]

Version 1.2

  • Elemental reactions caused by environmental objects was scaled to be that of 2 levels below the current World Level.

Version 1.1

  • The damage from the elemental reactions caused by environmental objects (grass, water etc.) was altered. The reaction damage from Overloaded from burning grass, or Electro-Shock from water bodies etc. was scaled to the current World Level, with a minimum of WL0 and maximum of WL4.

Version 1.0

  • Damage was released.