If an Anemoculi is successfully found, the item will be consumed and its general area will be highlighted with a blue circle. Upon entering its vicinity, a white arrow will point you towards its location. Once you get close enough, the Oculi symbol will appear on the map and the blue highlight will disappear.
If an Anemoculi is not found in any nearby regions, it will notify you and the item will not be consumed.
Note in Co-op: if you go to another player's world, it either appears to search for Anemoculi based on what's in your world or just won't find any (and will display the animation that none are found). Since none will be found, it won't be consumed.
This man-made stone plate possesses a certain characteristic-similar to that of the Anemo Statues of The Seven, giving it the power to resonate with Anemoculi. Oculus Resonance Stones are crude imitations of the Statues of The Seven constructed by the ancients. Some think that it is the very crudeness of such stones that makes them seek out the power of elemental oculi - their crudeness makes them crave the power of the statues in the hope that they might replace them.